What are the characteristics and functions of solar inverters?


Solar inverters

A solar inverter is a device that can change the direct current in a solar battery into alternating current. Inverters, also known as power regulators and power conditioners, are an indispensable part of photovoltaic power generation systems. The working circuit of a solar inverter must be a full-bridge circuit.20221129203436 removebg preview 1

Through a series of filtering and modulation in the full-bridge circuit, the load and electrical properties of the current are changed to achieve the user’s expected purpose.

Common solar power generation systems are mainly composed of four parts, namely solar panels, charge controllers, solar inverters and batteries.

Solar panels are devices that provide direct current and can convert solar energy into electrical energy; charge controllers are mainly responsible for controlling the conversion of energy; solar inverters convert the direct current of the solar panel into alternating current for storage in batteries, and batteries mainly store alternating current for people’s use.

Solar inverters play a connecting role in the entire solar power generation system.

Characteristics of solar inverters

The main characteristics of solar inverters are centralized inversion and string inversion. The scale of solar power generation systems is generally very large. If one solar panel corresponds to one inverter, it will cause a waste of resources and is very impractical. Therefore, in actual production, solar inverters are centralized inverting the DC power generated by all panels and converting it into AC power.

Therefore, the scale of solar inverters is generally to adapt to the scale of the panels, so a single solar inverter obviously cannot meet this requirement, which leads to another feature of solar inverters, which are often used in strings.

Functions of solar inverters

The inverter not only has the function of direct-to-alternating conversion, but also has the function of maximizing the function of solar cells and system fault protection. In summary, there are automatic operation and shutdown functions, maximum power tracking and control functions, anti-independent operation functions (for grid-connected systems), automatic voltage adjustment functions (for grid-connected systems), DC detection functions (for grid-connected systems), and DC grounding detection functions (for grid-connected systems). Here we briefly introduce the automatic operation and shutdown function and the maximum power tracking control function.

  • 1. Automatic operation and shutdown function:
  • After sunrise in the morning, the intensity of solar radiation gradually increases, and the output of the solar cell also increases accordingly. When the output power required by the inverter task is reached, the inverter automatically starts to operate.
  • 2. After entering the operation, the inverter will monitor the output of the solar cell module at all times. As long as the output power of the solar cell module is greater than the output power required by the inverter task, the inverter will continue to operate; until the sunset, the inverter can operate even on rainy days. When the output of the solar cell module becomes smaller and the inverter output is close to 0, the inverter will enter the standby state.
  • 3. Maximum power tracking control function: The output of the solar cell module changes with the intensity of solar radiation and the temperature of the solar cell module itself (chip temperature). In addition, because the solar cell module has the characteristic that the voltage decreases as the current increases, there is an optimal working point that can obtain the maximum power. The intensity of solar radiation is changing, and obviously the optimal working point is also changing.
  • 4. In response to these changes, the working point of the solar cell module is always kept at the maximum power point, and the system always obtains the maximum power output from the solar cell module.

This control is the maximum power tracking control. The biggest feature of the inverter used in the solar power generation system is that it includes the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function.

Written by: Tody from WTech
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